UG SOCI 324 Past Questions and Answers

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    Department of sociology, UG

    B.A. SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS: 2022/2023 SOCI 324: GROUPS, ORGANISATIONS AND THE INDIVIDUAL (3 CREDITS) TIME ALLOWED: TWO (2) HOURS INSTRUCTION:

    ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN SECTIONS A AND B ON THE QUESTION PAPER AND FIVE QUESTIONS IN SECTION C INTO YOUR ANSWER BOOKLET

    We believe that if you take time to solve these questions you will find your way out to getting 12 points in SOCI 324 in your Misweb

    Sociology

    Soci 324

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    10.The existence of 'mindguards', submission to group decisions, belief in group wisdom and stereotyping outsiders are all characteristics of ___

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    9.The concept of seeks to explain the violent and impulsive behavior of the individual in large crowds and mobs ___

     

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    8.A person in a crowded restaurant begins to choke on his food and cough loudly, but other patrons continue dining and do not help. This scenario is referred to as ___

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    7. Finding that you do better work if you go to a library than if you stay at home to study can best be explained using the concept of ___

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    6.Akua, Abena, and Ama are working on a group project for their social psychology class. Akua believes that Abena is not doing as much work on the project as she and Ama are doing. If Akua is accurate in her perception, Abena is engaging in ___

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    5.Someone who engages in behaviours to help others without directly benefiting him-or her-self from that act is engaged in _________________ _

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    4.Two theories that can be used to explain aggression are ___________ _ and ___________________ _

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    3.The fact that people are more willing to risk their own lives to save a family member than to save a stranger provides support for the. _______________ _ theory.

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    2.Two sources of authority that and can lead to obedience are ---------------------------------

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    1. The _________________ compliance technique begins with a large, usually unreasonable request.

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    19.If it is shared by several people, the task of building a house is ___ _
    a.a deindividuating task
    b.an individual-level task
    c.an interactional task
    d.an additive task
    e.a mUltiplicative task

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    19.According to Zajonc's drive theory of social facilitation, an audience will ----
    a.have no effect on highly skilled individuals and improve the performance of less skillful individuals
    b.improve the performance of less skillful individuals and have no effect on the performance of less skillful individuals
    c.improve the performance of less skillful individuals and interfere with the performance of highly skilled individuals
    d.improve the performance of highly skilled individuals and have no effect on the performance of highly skilled individuals
    e.improve the performance of highly skilled individuals and interfere with the performance of less skillful individuals

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    18.Social loafing is reduced when ___ _
    a.each group member makes a unique contribution to the task
    b.the group is composed of both male and female members
    c.group members' commitment to the group's success is decreased
    d.each participant's effort is blended with other people's efforts in such a way that any participant's effort is indistinguishable from that of others
    e.the apparent value of the task is minimized

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    17.Selorm is studying for a test in biology. He is somewhat concerned about his ability to master the material and is trying to concentrate as much as he can. Sedem, his brother, has interrupted his studies several times, causing Selorm to become frustrated and angry. When Sedem again enters Selorm 's room, Selorm pushes Sedem hard, and threatens to punch him. This situation illustrates ___ _
    a.the fighting instinct
    b.Thanatos
    c.the catharsis hypothesis
    d.hostile aggression
    e.the frustration-aggression hypothesis

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    16. Group polarization involves ___ _
    a.the tendency of some group members to shift from one extreme position to another, depending on the views of the group's leadership
    b.the tendency of group members to shift toward more extreme positions than those they initially held as a result of group discussion
    c.the tendency of groups to attract members who initially agree with the group's position, and then to take that agreement to extreme levels
    d.the tendency of some individuals to take a charismatic leadership position within a group
    e.the tendency of groups to segregate dissenting members into different "camps" prior to the group's splintering into separate groups

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    15.Bystanders frequently fail to respond to an emergency because no one else is responding. We tend to rely on what others say and do when we are not sure of the nature of the situation or of what behaviours to engage in. This is known as ___ _

    a.diffusion of responsibility
    b.the altruistic personality effect
    c.pluralistic ignorance
    d.selective altruism
    e.the implicit bystander effect

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    13.The need to resist conformity is stronger in ___ _
    a.small communities
    b.older people
    c.individualistic societies
    d.collectivist societies
    e.large groups

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    12.As the number of bystanders who are present at an emergency increases, the probability that anyone bystander will help , and the length of time that passes before help occurs ___ _
    a.increases; remains the same
    b.decreases; decreases
    c.decreases; increases
    d.increases; decreases
    e.increases; increases

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    11.The idea that the presence of other people is arousing and increases the tendency to perform dominant responses is known as _

    a.the distraction-conflict theory

    b.the collective effort model

    c.the social decision scheme

    d.the collective effect model

    e.the drive theory of social facilitation

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    10.Martha tells her friend, Mary, "Didn't you hear that eating lots of garlic is good for you?" If Mary then changes her eating habits to include a lot of garlic, it would be due to ___

    a.peer pressure

    b.normative social influence

    c.individuation

    d.informational social influence

    e.symbolic social influence

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    9.Two brothers have inherited a small plot of land from their parents. One brother wants to sell the land and divide the money with his brother.

    The other wants to use the land as collateral for a business loan.

    This is an example of

    a.a social dilemma

    b.cooperation

    c.social construction

    d.social loafing

    e.conflict

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    8.When there are many bystanders during an emergency, the probability of receiving help is reduced. This is because of -----

    a.the diffusion of responsibility that occurs

    b.selective altruism

    c.inclusive fitness

    d.the empathy-altruism hypothesis

    e.moral hypocrisy

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    7.Strongly cohesive groups may assume that their decisions can't  be incorrect and to put pressure on all group members  to strongly support the group's decisions.

    This is known as

    a.a social dilemma

    b.groupthink

    c.deindividuation

    d.group polarization

    e.the collective effort model

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    1. In Asch's classic experiment, a standard-setting line was first presented to small groups of people, followed by the presentation of three comparison lines of different lengths.

    In one condition, three accomplices, posing as students, chose an incorrect answer before the subject could respond. Frequently, the subject would then also select an incorrect response. This result illustrates ____

    a.the effects of compliance

    b.the low-ball technique

    c.an informational social influence

    d.the absence of individuation tendencies in some participants

    e.the influence of group pressure to conform

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    5.The idea that providing angry persons with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses in relatively safe ways will lead to a reduction in their tendencies to engage in more harmful kinds of aggression is __

    a.the drive theory

    b.the incompatible response technique

    c.the catharsis hypothesis

    d.the instrumental technique

    e.the displacement theory

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    According to Distraction-Conflict Theory, the presence of others produces increased arousal because

    a.of the mere physical presence of the audience

    b.of our desire to be evaluated positively by others, causing evaluation apprehension

    c.of our efforts to pay attention to both the audience and the task being

    d.an audience widens the focus of our attention

    e.of our uniquely human cognitive abilities

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    3.Steven sees an emergency and then his empathy is aroused; he then provides help simply because the victim needed help and it felt good to provide help.

    This example illustrates the

    a.selective altruism model

    b.empathy-altruism hypothesis

    c.empathic joy hypothesis

    d. negative state relief hypothesis

    e.genetic determinism mode

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    2.Suppose you are taking a friend to a party. The invitation specified that the party would begin at 6:00pm. When you arrive at your friend's apartment at 5:45 to pick her up, she tells you she won't be ready to leave before about 6:30 and comments that "Nobody arrives on time, anyway". Your friend is following

    a.an explicit social norm

    b. a tendency towards conformity

    c. a symbolic social influence factor

    d. an implicit social norm

    e. an ingratiation technique

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    1.One perspective on aggression suggests that aggressive behaviour is triggered by a variety of situational and individual variables that influence affect, cognitions, and arousal. This perspective is known as

    a. The thanatos hypothesis

    b. The frustration-aggression model

    c. The Type A Type B Hypothesis

    d. The general aggression model

    e. The excitation transfer theory

     

    Your score is

    The average score is 19%

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    SECTION C: ANSWER ANY FIVE QUESTIONS (20 MARKS -EACH QUESTION IS WORTH 4 MARKS)

    1. Describe the two basic motives that cause people to conform.
    2. Using three factors, explain why the bystander effect occurs.
    3. With the help of a suitable illustration, briefly describe the excitation transfer theory of aggression.
    4. Describe three factors that promote a group’s cohesiveness.
    5. What are the five crucial steps people go through in deciding whether to offer help?
    6. Briefly discuss the relationship between gender and aggression?
    7. With the help of a suitable illustration, briefly explain the evaluation apprehension theory of social facilitation.
    8. With the help of three factors, use the concept of deindividuation to explain a situation whereby spectators at a stadium invade the football field.

    K Fosu The Informant is a lifestyle blogger with 5 years experience in content and web development. He is a Google keyword planner, SEO analyst, an influencer and entrepreneur who holds BA Degree from Ghana's Premier University.

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